Origin of JULIEN Y Chromosome
4 Dec 2012 by Gary JULIAN – Rev 7 (original 12 Dec 2007)
Beware, this is a lone opinion and speculation, but offers food for thought. I’ve divided this discussion into a “formal” part as represented by the International Society of Genetic Genealogical (ISOGG) updated in 2012 and an “informal” part as represented by my own further discussion of the JULIEN YDNA. The results of my participation in Family Tree DNA (FTDNA)’s “Walk Thru the Y (WTY)” project is add to the formal part.
More has been discovered about the “sons of Rene” Y chromosome markers. Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations, published 14 Dec 2007 has changed radically the aging of the Out-of-Africa migration of both men and women. They now are much closer in age than previously known. In 10 years, databases have grown considerably as this interest in genetic origin has grown.
There are two types of “markers” used to identify founding genetic fathers; those whose mutation has been carried down through the generations to the present. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) or snips and Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) (see glossary at the end of this discussion) on the Y chromosome have only been used since the early 1990s to identify male ancestry. As YDNA databases grow, more founding fathers are identified.
Academic institutions by 2002 had formally identified only 151 fathers (haplogroups and haplotypes) whose descendants populate the world today. These identifications were made by locating SNPs on the Y chromosome. These SNPs do not code for proteins that affect our biology and our body does not attempt to correct the mutation, but just passes it on to sons.
As STR databases increased in size, informal genetic hobbyists started their own statistical evaluation of the STR markers. We JULIENs are fortunate to have a unique STR 455 with 8 repeats, while almost all other haplotypes have 11 repeats at this location. About 14% of us northern European descendants have haplotype I. I1a is now formally I1and represent about 1.5% of northern European founders.
My interest in genetic family history started in July 2003 after reading “The Seven Daughters of Eve” by Bryan SYKES pub 2001 and when I obtained my mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results from Oxford Ancestors (OA) in England. This gave me an idea of my maternal ancestry. My maternal genetic founding mother lived in western USSR. In April 2004 I received mtDNA results from FTDNA which analyzed 2 of the 3 control groups and gave me 5 mutation markers. By Sep 2004 FTDNA had broken down haplogroup H into 15 subclades and gave me a founding mother called H7. In all the public databases that I know of, only 1 other swabber has a match with me. Since then I’m in group H7c1. I figure that my maternal line represents only 1.5% of the northern European population.
In the fall of 2003 I obtained my first 10 STR markers also from OA. These markers only gave a general indication of an origin in Germany or Scandinavia and I was not given a type yet. In May 2004 FTDNA gave me 25 STR markers and placed me into haplotype I1a (now I1). And in August 2004 I upgraded to 37 markers.
I met Ken NORDTVEDT online in July 2004 and he was and is our I1guru, having done more than anyone else in working out the various subclades of I1. At that time he had 6 and today he has 55. He encouraged me to obtain results from testing the site order of the duplicate STR 385. I got my results from Biotix Gmbh in Potsdam, Germany, in May 2005. I worked with Ken to plea to 250 other swabbers to obtain test results to increase our database size and ability to identify more recent fathers.
In May 2005 I obtained 43 STR markers from DNA Heritage (DNAH) which confirmed FTDNA’s 37 markers and added 6 more. I now felt comfortable with the marker ID process, having confirmation from an independent lab.
In July 2006 I upgraded my 37 markers from FTDNA to 67 markers, making my total today at 77.
In the summer of 2005 I advertised on several family history forums and snagged my first “son of Rene” to swab. We have yet to get a documented paper trail back to Rene, but his YDNA is a perfect 43/43 match to mine and I have a documented paper trail to Rene..
In September 2005 I opened up website www.julian-ydna.org and today have 15 YDNA confirmed “sons of Rene” on the site.
In July 2007 I traveled to the JULIEN farm in Norway, swabbed a JULIEN cheek and found out that this Julien is an I1a-Bothnia from Finland through western Sweden and into the farm in eastern Norway. The sons of Rene match closer to a descendant of an owner of the adjacent KOMPERUD farm.
We anxiously awaited results from a JULIEN in the Seattle, WA, area whose paper trail is from the farm recently (the late 1800s). This French Canadian JULIEN was found to be in the R1b1b2 group, not I1. I’m still looking for a French/Norsk JULIEN to swab.
Input from the HAMILTON website which applies to our JULIEN origins was added 3 Aug 2008.
Ancestors of those in the haplogroup I are thought to have originated in Eastern Europe about 24,000 years ago, and were associated with the Gravettian culture representing nearly 20% of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the LGM in Europe (maximum extent of ice in Europe) (22,000-14,000 ybP).
The 2 main subclades of group I (I1-M253 and I1-M438) likely divided about 20,000 years ago. I1-M253 (aka as just I1) has highest frequency in Scandinavia, Iceland and northwest Europe. It is also used as a marker for Viking or Anglo-Saxon invaders of the UK.
The I1 subclade of Haplogroup I is estimated to be 4000 to 5000 years old (the old “15,00-20,000years ago in Iberia” information was wrong), and confirmed by the single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, known as M253. While many I1 members trace their ancestry to Scandinavia, others find their roots in the British Isles, Germany, and beyond.
What has happened to the I tree? The publication of Underhill 2007and Karafet 2008 has brought major changes to the I tree.
Origin of JULIEN Y
Written with the help of “The Journey of Man by Spencer WELLS pub 2002 and “The Real Eve” by Stephen OPPENHEIMER pub 2003.
The formal” part is constantly being revised as more swabs are analyzed. Currently:
The founding father of all modern men lived in Eastern Africa about 190,000 years before present (ybP). Adam Out-of-Africa has 3 sons, Abel, Cain and Seth whose descendants today carry his SNP on their Y chromosome. Many men back to about 190,000 ybP had sons, but their male descendants died out before today’s YDNA tests.
I’ve put together a narrative of the travels of the sons of Adam Out-of-Africa with times and places along the trail. I’ve assumed for this exercise 25 years per generation. I’ve added nicknames to some of the genetic founding fathers since only SNP IDs were given for some. Here is a summary of the descendancy:
Nickname SNP Haplogroup BirthDate Birth Location
Out-of-Africa Adam (M168) 83,000 ybP Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Seth (M89) 50,000 ybP near Karachi, Pakistan
Inos (M170) (I) 33,000 ybP near Kostenki, Ukraine
Micah (M253) (I1) 5,000 ybP in Germany
Laban (L22) (I1d) 4,000 ybP back into Germany after being in
Balkans during LGM
Peleg (P109) (I1d1) 2,300 ybP in Eastern Norway
From here on phylogeny is informal, not yet established formally by ISOGG
Rene (???) (I1d1x) 670 ybP in France
Rene Jr (???) (I1d1xx) 360 ybP in France [our papered Rene immigrating to South Carolina]
About 190,000 years before present (ybP) a father known by SNP M42 (Adam), was the father of all men today. He lived in Africa (either Sub-Saharan or in the Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia. The Great Rift Valley as originally described extends from Lebanon in the north to Mozambique in the south, and constitutes one of two distinct physiographic provinces of the East African mountains.
About 125,000 ybP a group of modern man (homo sapiens) started out of Africa using a northern route, Ethiopia to Lebanon and northward, got trapped during an ice age and died out.
4,280 generations after Adam:
Sometime about 83,000 ybP a son of genetic “Adam” that we will call Out-of-Africa Adam (M168) founded the world of men out of Africa today. He lived in Ethiopia and climate conditions were warm, enticing him to be adventurous and travel along the coasts eating primarily seafood (fish and shell fish). He traveled north along the Egyptian coast to the southern tip of the Gulf of Suez. This warm period caused much evaporation as indicated by high salinity in the Red Sea, lowering its level enough to accommodate a crossing to the Sinai Peninsula of Saudi Arabia which wasn’t desert at that time. He traveled east along the coast and crossed the Gulf of Aqaba onto the southern coast of Iran and along the coast to the mouth of the Indus River separating Iran and Pakistan.
1,320 generations after Out-of-Africa Adam:
About 50,000 ybP, a father known as Seth by SNP M89, was born near Karachi, Pakistan. He had 5 genetic founding sons, Jahangir, Krishna, Inos, Heber and Gershom. Seth was the most prolific genetic father of the 3 sons of Out-of-Africa Adam. These 5 sons had at least 4 paths out of Pakistan to populate most of the world. The one we are interested in is the path taken to give birth to Inos (haplogroup I). This path went north up the banks of the Indus River through the Kyper Pass near Kabul, Afghanistan and north into Tajikistan; then traveling north west along today’s border between Uzbekistan on the north and Turkmenistan on the south past the northern side of the Aral Sea and onto the Mammoth Steppe in Russia. Genetically,Europe is a cul du sac with migrations coming from Central Asia westward into Europe.
680 generations after Seth:
About 33,000 ybP, a father known as Inos by SNP M170 (I) moved from eastern Mammoth Steppe of central Asia to near Kostenki, Ukraine. Kostenki is a very important Paleolithic site on the Don River in the Ukraine. It was a settlement which contained venus figures, dwellings made of mammoth bones, and many flint tools and bone implements. Kostenki / Kostenki is not actually a single site but really an area on the right bank of the Don River in the regions of the villages of Kostenki and Borshevo, consisting of more than twenty site locations, all dating to the Paleolithic. Today this is a primary site for the Gravettian culture. The Early Upper Paleolithic between 24,000 and 33,000 years ago heralds the start of the high cultural peaks of the Upper Paleolithic. Cultures taking off from around 30,000 years ago, during the phase, are known collectively as the Gravettian technocomplex. The main cultural innovations of the Gravettian were the systematic mining of high-grade raw materials, high-grade cave art, elaborate burials, large bone tool sets and the use of bone – particularly mammoth – for houses and specialized mammoth hunting.
1,120 generations after Inos:
About 5,000 ybP, a father known as Micah by SNP M253/P40 (I1) moved from Ukraine into central Germany traveling due east from Kostenki. European population underwent a substantial decrease in population size between 30,000 and 15,000 ybP as Europe was moving into the depths of the last ice age. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Paleolithic population of Europe was confined to Iberia, southern Italy and the Balkans (refugia) during the period of most extensive glaciation around 16,000 years ago, and that human populations then expanded northward during the postglacial period. The highest frequency today of I1 is in Northern Scandinavia. This lends to the hypothesis that the Adriatic region of modern-day Croatia served as a refuge for the northern populations during the LGM.
40 generations after Micah:
About 4,000 ybP, a father known as Laban by SNP L22 (I1d) moved from the Adriatic region of Croatia back up into Jutland (Northwest Germany)many following the melting edge of glaciers and large animals after the LGM. His descendants lived on the European continent and are given the nickname I1a-Anglo Saxon or I1d. About 16 subclades of this father developed in northwest Europe and Scandanavia down to 2,300 ybP.
68 generations after Laban:
About 2,300 ybP, a father known as Peleg by SNP P109 (I1d1) continued the march northward from Jutland into Eastern Norway.
Our Norsk JULIEN’s father, known formally as I1d1 +P109 in ISOGG terminology and I1-NuN14 in Ken NORDTVEDT terminology, lived about 2,730 ybP (718 BC) in Eastern Norway.
Now for the “informal” discussion:
Our JULIEN genetic father had reverse migration with his I1 father Micah living in Germany, having a descendant founding fathers Laban and Peleg in Jutland and Eastern Norway and then coming back to France shortly after the Viking era, 1000-1200 ybP.
About 10,000 ybP families followed large game up into Scandinavia upon recession of glaciers. Today the fathers are known by STR markers and nicknames as Norse, Bothnia (Finland) and ultra Norse (specifically eastern Norway where the JULIEN farm is located.
We can discuss a historical era, remembering that between 2,300 ybP and the Viking era 1,000 – 1,200 ybP, a Scandinavian population and a European population could have moved between these areas depending upon weather, food supply and commerce.
652 generations after Peleg:
About 1340 AD or 670 ybP a father Rene was born in the midst of the Black Plague in France, his father having migrated post Viking era from Norway. We sons of Rene Jr (1660-1744) are looking for a descendent of this French father to swab and confirm the 360 years our family was in France (1700 – 1340). We have no written records during this period with which to compare genetic results, but genetic results would confirm this travel narrative. This is our genetic bottleneck, a fortuitous situation for the JULIEN family.
The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe’s population, reducing the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as having created a series of religious, social and economic upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European history. It took 150 years for Europe’s population to recover. The plague returned at various times, killing more people, until it left Europe in the 19th century.
Since my discovery of a close genetic relationship (34/37 match) with my stepson, Robert C HAMILTON, who is paper-trailed to Lanarkshire, Scotland, and the many other Scot, Icelanders and Greenlanders who are close matches, the most probable genetic father from eastern Norway had sons involved in the expansion to France, Scotland, Iceland, Greenland, etc during and after the Viking era.
Our close match (34/36) with Osvald BYARENG, a living descendant from the KOMPERUD farm, just meters from the JULIEN farm, has convinced me that our JULIEN genetic father lived on or knew that he was from either of these farms in eastern Norway sometime between 1,500 and 1,200 ybP. Let’s now look at markers and probable genetic distances to pin down this period closer.
If our SNPs were tested, we would show positive for all the SNPs listed above back to 190,000 ybP. My WTY project came up with some private SNPs, not yet formalized, which gives us further resolution. My WTY SNPs are shown at the end of this paper.
Returning to STR markers, today we are looking at up to 111 markers. Many swabbers have not more than 43, but the few that are greater show us a trend. For example if sons of Rene match 43/43, then most probably they match 76/76 or maybe 75/76. In the spring of 2011, I’ve upgraded to 111 markers and match Bob JULIAN of Goldsboro, North Carolina 110/111. We have only 1 marker difference now out of 111. The upgrade did not improve our resolution.
Looking at our STRs beginning with the earliest I1d in the Balkans, nicknamed Laban L22 -AngloSaxon-generic, we see that he has:
DYS 385 as 13,13, DYS 389ii = 29, DYS 426 = 10, DYS444 = 14 and DYS 447 = 22
STR mutations (generally copying mistakes) can result in 1-or-2-step increases or decreases in repeats. An STR mutation that is carried on occurs about once every 500 years.
Father nicknamed L22-Transition2 has DYS385 = 13,14, DYS389ii = 28, DYS 426 = 11, DYS 444 = 13 and DYS 447 = 23 mutations carried in all subclades of Anglo Saxon and Norse. Note that other Scandinavian fathers exist, but have not been located as easily as ultra-Norse has in eastern Norway.
So this “transition” father on continental Europe (Germany/France/Poland/etc) has at least five 1-step STR mutations which could represent 2,500 years (5 * 500 = 2,500). Let’s place him on the continent at 3,500 ybP (6,000-2,500 = 3,500). We see that M253-ASgeneric and M253-transition have DYS385 = 14,14, DYS462 = 12 and DYS390 = 22.
Now we go up to eastern Norway with a father whose DYS385 = 14,15, DYS462 = 13 and DYS390 = 23. Three 1-step mutations from the M253-ASgeneric, so ultra Norse (uN) father could be 1,500 years (3 * 500 = 1,500) younger or lived 2,000 ybP (3,500 – 1,500 = 2,000). We see that ASgeneric, Transition 2 and uN all have DYS617 = 13.
Here is the most recent father that Ken has identified with the JULIENs and Ken nicknames us I1a-NuN14 which includes our 1-step mutation of DYS617 from 13 to 14 another 500 years closer to present or 1,500 ybP (2,000 – 500 = 1,500).
I take us closer with a 2-step mutation on the multiple allele DYS464. All previous I1a swabbers carry 12,14,14,15 and we JULIENs carry 12,12,14,15. This will get us to 500 ybP (1,500 – [2 * 500] = 500) or about 1,500 AD which is after the Viking era, after naming the JULIEN farm and after the plague. This father could have lived in either Norway or France. Maybe Rene’s 3rd genetic great grandfather was our founder? (5 generations * 30 y/gen = 150 yrs) (1660-150 = 1,510AD)
On 23 Dec 2007, I ordered tests for SNPs S107-111 and in Jan 2008 I ordered SNPs P109 and P259 to further resolve the sons of Rene YDNA. All test results were positive, confirming that our SNP and STR markers agree.
This is all speculation, but the mutation march to the present supports this theory for now. Let’s see how we can march from P109 to Rene genetically:
Peleg P109 (I1d1) lived 2,300 ybP or 718 BC in Eastern Norway
JULIEN farm name in Norway was established 761 ybP or 1250AD
JULIEN ancestor left Norway for France 661 ybP or 1350 AD (during the black plague?) My previous hypothesis of a Viking invader leaving Norway during the Viking era (800-1000AD) doesn’t work for giving us the surname JULIEN from the farm name. Let’s say that our ancestor left Norway to escape the Black Plague (which really was all over Europe during this period). Realize that we European descendants today had ancestors of the population that escaped plague death and survived after our reproductive years.
Rene JULIEN left France for South Carolina 311 ybP or 1700 AD and we have Rene’s DYS markers today.
So if a marker is generated once every 500 years or so, then we should have 5 DYS markers differing from modal I1d1 (2730 – 311 / 500 = 4.8, say 5) and what do you know! We sons of Rene are 6 markers away from modal I1d1.
Short Tandem Repeat Modal I1d1 repeats Julien repeats
DYS 449 28 27
DYS 464b 14 12
DYS 464d 14 15
DYS 413b 25 23
DYS 557 15 14
DYS 481 26 23
So there were 360 years of our family in France without any genetic or paper trail to confirm this hypothesis. This is about 14 generations after leaving Norway and before coming to South Carolina.
Allele – (1) When a gene or other DNA sequence exhibits variability, each alternative form is known as an allele. (2) One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location on a chromosome. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. In an individual one form of the allele (the dominant one) may be expressed more than another form (the recessive one).
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) – Common but minute variations that occur in human DNA at a frequency of one every 1,000 bases. These variations can be used to track inheritance in families. SNP is pronounced snip. SNPs are the most simple form and most common source of genetic polymorphism in the human genome (90% of all human DNA polymorphisms). A SNP test determines ones haplogroup. There are 2 types of nucleotide base substitutions resulting in SNPs:
• A transition – substitution occurs between puriness (A, G) or between pyrimidines (C, T).
• A transversion – substitution occurs between a purine and a pyrimidine
A SNP in a coding region may have 2 different effects on the resulting protein:
• Synonymous – the substitution causes no amino acid change to the protein it produces. This is also called a silent mutation.
• Non-Synonymous – the substitution results in an alteration of the encoded amino acid. A missense mutation changes the protein by causing a change of codon. A nonsense mutation results in a misplaced termination codon. One half of all coding sequence SNPs result in non-synonymous codon changes.
There are over 1 million SNPs identified (1,255,326 mapped SNPs at the SNP Consortium Org.
Short Tandem Repeats (STR) marker – A stretch of DNA where a small base sequence (usually 2-6 base pairs) repeats itself several times, giving a particular allele. Choosing markers that have been proven to have high variation between and within populations is desirable. DYS (for short tandem repeats on the Y chromosome) precedes the marker number.
Gary JULIAN’s WTY results have been published and are:
Sample Marker HAP ID Allele Position
12 GRC007654 L123 I1 T+ ChrY:15202651..15202651
13 GRC007654 L124 C+ ChrY:16276156..16276156
14 GRC007654 L125 I1 C+ ChrY:17269063..17269063
32 GRC007654 L15 G+ ChrY:6813519..6813519
38 GRC007654 L16 A+ ChrY:7233143..7233143
58 GRC007654 L186 del+ ChrY:16586687..16586687
59 GRC007654 L187 T+ ChrY:16586691..16586691
86 GRC007654 L22 I1d C+ ChrY:8636009..8636009
126 GRC007654 L41 I A+ ChrY:17557996..17557996
143 GRC007654 L64 T+ ChrY:10594932..10594932
151 GRC007654 L74 T+ ChrY:15135792..15135792
152 GRC007654 L75 I1 A+ ChrY:17557999..17557999
158 GRC007654 L81 I1 C+ ChrY:20923114..20923114
193 GRC007654 M139 del+ ChrY:20165775..20165778
257 GRC007654 M253 I1 T+ ChrY:13532101..13532101
280 GRC007654 M294 T+ ChrY:21154333..21154333
319 GRC007654 M42 T+ ChrY:20326228..20326228
349 GRC007654 M89 T+ ChrY:20376701..20376701
363 GRC007654 P109 I1d1 T+ ChrY:13935399..13935399
368 GRC007654 P123 C+ ChrY:17676255..17676255
372 GRC007654 P158 T+ ChrY:16002907..16002907
417 GRC007654 P30 I1 A+ ChrY:13006761..13006761
430 GRC007654 P38 I C+ ChrY:12994387..12994387
432 GRC007654 P40 I1 T+ ChrY:12994402..12994402
461 GRC007654 PAGE.S00026 A+ ChrY:20105584..20105584
See Chromo2 versus Geno 2.0 for these 2 tests revealing more SNPs, but none yet to give Rene a twig on a branch
See Rene’s twig for Big Y results which finally gave the SNPs unique to Rene and established a twig on a branch for him